The Constitution of India is neither flexible nor rigid but a synthesis of both. Our Constitutional founder-fathers were aware of the fact that socio-economic life is dynamic. So there should be space in the Constitution to accommodate new needs. That’s why our Constitution-makers included Article 368 in the Constitution. Hence, the Indian Constitution also provides for its amendment in order to adjust itself to the changing conditions and needs. The various amendments made so far highlight that the Constitution of India is an organic entity.
Article 368 under Part XX of the Indian Constitution deals with the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure. Article 368 laid out that the Parliament may, in the exercise of its constituent power, amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision in the Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down for the purpose. However, the Parliament cannot amend those provisions that form the “Basic Structure of the Constitution”.
Important Amendments of the Indian Constitution
|Amendments||Enforced Since||Amended Articles||Amended provisions of the Constitution|
|1st Amendment Act, 1951||18 June 1951||Insert Articles 31A and 31B.|
Insert 9th Schedule.
Amend Article 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372, and 376.
|1. Empowered the State to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes.|
2. Added the Ninth Schedule to protect the land reforms and other laws included in it from the judicial review. Articles 31A and 31B were inserted in the Constitution.
3. Provided for the saving of laws providing the acquisition of estates, etc.
4. Added three more grounds of restriction on freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1)(a): Public order, Friendly relations with foreign states, and Incitement to an offence. Also, the restrictions were made reasonable and justifiable.
5. Provided that state trading and nationalisation of any trade or business by the State is not to be invalid on the ground of violation of the right to trade or business.
|4th Amendment Act, 1955||27 April 1955||Amend Articles 31, 35, and 305.|
Amend 9th Schedule.
|1. Empowered the State to nationalise any trade.|
2. Made the compensation amount given in lieu of compulsory acquisition of private property beyond the scrutiny of courts.
3. Included more Acts in the 9th Schedule
4. Expanded the scope of Article 31A.
|7th Amendment Act, 1956||1 November 1956||Insert Articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.|
Amend Schedules 1st, 2nd, 4th and 7th.
Amend Part VIII.
Amend Articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131,153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231, and 232.
|1. Abolished the existing classification of states into four categories: Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D states. Reorganized the Indian states into 14 States and 6 Union Territories.|
2. Extended the jurisdiction of High Courts to Union Territories.
3. Provided for the creation of a common High Court for two or more states.
4. Provided for the appointment of an additional and acting judge of the High Court.
|9th Amendment Act, 1960||28 December 1960||Amend 1st Schedule||Facilitated the cession of the Indian territory of Berubari Union (located in West Bengal) to Pakistan as provided in the Indo-Pakistan Agreement (1958).|
|10th Amendment Act, 1961||11 August 1961||Amend 1st Schedule.|
Amend Article 240.
|Incorporation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory in the Union of India. (India acquired its control from Portugal).|
|11th Amendment Act, 1961||19 December 1961||Amend Articles 66 and 71.||1. Changed the election procedure of the vice-president by introducing an electoral college instead of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament.|
2. Proposed that the election of the President or Vice-President cannot be challenged on the ground of any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
|12th Amendment Act, 1962||Deemed to have come into force on 20 December 1961||Amend 1st Schedule.|
Amend Article 240.
|Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory in the Union of India. India acquired control of Goa, Daman and Diu from Portugal in December 1961.|
|13th Amendment Act, 1962||1 December 1962||Insert Article 371A.|
Amend Article 170.
|Provided the status of a State to Nagaland and made special provisions for it under Article 371A.|
|14th Amendment Act, 1962||28 December 1962||Insert Article 239A.|
Amend Schedules 1st and 4th.
Amend Articles 81 and 240.
|1. Incorporation of Puducherry in the Indian Union.|
2. Provided the creation of legislatures and council of ministers for the Union Territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, Puducherry, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, and Tripura.
|15th Amendment Act, 1963||5 October 1963||Insert Article 224A.|
Amend 7th Schedule.
Amend Articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311, and 316.
|1. Raise the retirement age of the High Court judges from 60 to 62 years.|
2. Provided for appointment of retired judges of the High Courts as acting judges of the same court.
3. Enabled the retired judge of a High Court to act as an Ad-hoc Judge of the Supreme Court.
4. Proposed for the procedure for determining the age of the Supreme Court and High Court judges.
|17th Amendment Act, 1964||20 June 1964||Amend 9th Schedule.|
Amend Article 31A.
|1. Included 44 more Acts in the Ninth Schedule.|
2. Prohibited the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid as compensation.
|18th Amendment Act, 1966||27 August 1966||Amend Article 3||This Amendment made it clear that the Parliament has the power to form a new State or Union Territory by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to another state or union territory.|
|21st Amendment Act, 1967||10 April 1967||Amend 8th Schedule||Included “Sindhi” as the 15th language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution|
|22nd Amendment Act, 1969||25 September 1969||Insert Articles 244A and 371B.|
Amend Article 275
|Facilitated the establishment of a new autonomous State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam|
|24th Amendment Act, 1971||5 November 1971||Amend Articles 13 and 368||1. Confirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution, including Fundamental Rights.|
2. The President’s assent to the Constitutional Amendment Bill was made compulsory.
|25th Amendment Act, 1971||8 December 1971||Insert Article 31C.|
Amend Article 31.
|1. Curtailed the Fundamental Right to Property.|
2. Provided that any law made to give effect to the Directive Principles contained in Article 39(b) or 39(c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by Artice 14, 19, and 31.
|26th Amendment Act, 1971||28 December 1971||Insert Article 363A.|
Amend Article 366.
Remove Articles 291 and 362.
|Abolished the privy purses and privileges of the former rulers of princely states|
|31st Amendment Act, 1972||17 October 1973||Amend Articles 81, 330, and 332.||Increased the number of Lok Sabha seats from 525 to 545|
|33rd Amendment Act, 1974||19 May 1974||Amend Articles 101 and 190||Proposed that resignation of Member of Parliament and State Legislature may be accepted by the Speaker/Chairman only if he is satisfied that the resignation is voluntary or genuine|
|35th Amendment Act, 1974||1 March 1975||Insert Article 2A.|
Insert 10th Schedule.
Amend Articles 80 and 81.
|This Amendment terminated the protectorate status of Sikkim and conferred on Sikkim the status of “Associate State of the Indian Union”. The Tenth Schedule was included in the Constitution, laying down the terms and conditions of the association of Sikkim with the Union of India.|
|36th Amendment Act, 1975||26 April 1975||Insert Article 371F.|
Amend Schedules 1st and 4th.
Amend Articles 80 and 81.
Remove Article 2A.
Remove the 10th Schedule.
|This Amendment made the Sikkim a full-fledged State of the Indian Union and repealed the Tenth Schedule.|
|38th Amendment Act, 1975||1 August 1975||Amend Articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359, and 360.||1. Made the promulgation of Ordinances by the President, Governors, and Administrators of the Union Territories non-justiciable. In other words, excluding the ordinance power of the President and Governor out of the judicial review.|
2. Provided that the declaration of the emergency by the President is non-justiciable.
3. Provided the power to the President to declare different proclamations of National Emergency on separate grounds simultaneously.
|39th Amendment Act, 1975||10 August 1975||Insert Article 329A.|
Amend 9th Schedule.
Amend Articles 71 and 329.
|1. This Amendment placed the disputes related to the President, Vice-president, Prime Minister and Speaker beyond the judiciary’s scope. They are to be decided by such authority as may be determined by the Parliament.|
2. Added certain Central Acts in the Ninth Schedule.
|40th Amendment Act, 1976||27 May 1976||Amend 9th Schedule.|
Amend Article 297.
|1. Enable the Parliament to specify from time to time the limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and the maritime zones of India.|
2. Added 64 more laws, mostly related to the land reforms in the Ninth Schedule.
|41st Amendment Act, 1976||7 September 1976||Amend Article 316||Raised the retirement age of the members of the State Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission from 60 to 62|
|42nd Amendments Act, 1976||Most provisions of the amendment came into force on 3 January 1977, others were enforced from 1 February 1997, and Section 27 came into effect on 1 April 1977.||42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976 is also known as the ‘Mini-Constitution’, as it brought many changes to the Constitution of India. It gave effect to the recommendation of the Swaran Singh Commission.|
Insert Articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A, and 257A.
Insert Parts IV-A and XIV-A.
Amend 7th Schedule.
Amend Articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368, and 371F.
|1. Added three new words, i.e., SOCIALIST, SECULAR, and INTEGRITY in the Preamble of the Constitution.|
2. Added the Fundamental Duties of the citizens under the new Parts IV-A.
3. Made the Constitutional Amendments beyond judicial scrutiny.
4. By amending Article 74, it made the President bound by the advice of the Union Council of Ministers.
5. Provided for the Administrative Tribunals and Tribunals for other matters by adding Part XIV-A.
6. Curtailed the power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
7. Raised the tenure of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies from 5 to 6 years.
8. Froze the seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies based on the 1971 census till 2001.
9. The Amendment included the three new Directive Principles, which are:
(a) Equal justice and free-legal aid by adding Article 39A,
(b) Participation of workers in the management of industries by adding Article 43A, and
(c) Protection of environment, forest and wildlife by adding Article 48A.
10. The Amendment provided that laws made for the implementation of Directive Principles cannot be declared invalid by the courts on the grounds of violation of some Fundamental Rights.
11. Empowered the Parliament to enact laws to deal with anti-national activities, and such laws are to take precedence over the Fundamental Rights.
12. Facilitated the proclamation of the National Emergency in a part of the territory of India.
13. Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to one year.
14. Transferred the five subjects from the State List to the Concurrent List, which are:
(c) Protection of Wild animals and Birds,
(d) Weights and Measures,
(e) Administration of Justice.
15. Given the power to the Centre to deploy its armed forces in any State to deal with a grave situation of law and order.
16. Empowered the Parliament to decide the rights and privileges of its members and committees from time to time.
17. Did away with the requirement of quorum in the Parliament and the State Legislatures.
18. Provided for the Creation of All-Indian Judicial Services.
19. Shortened the Procedure for disciplinary action by taking away the right of a civil servant to make representation at the second stage after the inquiry.
|43rd Amendment Act, 1977||13 April 1978||43rd Amendment Act of 1977 was enacted by the Janata Party Government to nullify some of the distortions introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976.|
Amend Articles 145, 226, 228, 366.
Remove Article 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A, and 228A.
|1. This Amendment restored the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the High Courts in respect of the judicial review and issue of writs.|
2. It deprived the Parliament of its Special power to enact laws to deal with anti-national activities.
|44th Amendment Act, 1978||Some of the provisions of this amendment came into force on 1 August 1979, while other provisions on 6 September 1979.||44th Amendment Act of 1978 was also enacted by the Janata Party Government to nullify some of the other distortions introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976.|
Insert Articles 134A, 300A and 361A.
Amend Part XII.
Amend 9th Schedule.
Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.
Remove Articles 31, 257A, and 329A.
|1. This amendment restored the original term of the Lok Sabha and the State Legislature Assemblies, which is five years.|
2. Restored some of the powers of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
3. Restored the provisions related to the quorum in the Parliament and the State Legislatures.
4. Replaced the term “internal disturbance” with “armed rebellion” with respect to National Emergency under Article 352.
5. Provided that President shall declare the National Emergency only on the written recommendation of the Cabinet.
6. Made certain procedural safeguards related to the national emergency and President’s rule.
7. Provided the power to the President to send back the advice of the Cabinet for reconsideration only once, but the reconsidered advice is to be binding on the President.
8. Repealed the provisions which made the satisfaction of the President, Governor and Administrators final in issuing ordinances.
9. Deleted the “Right to Property” from the list of Fundamental Rights by removing Article 31 and made the “Right to Property” only a legal right by adding Article 300-A in Part XII of the Constitution.
10. Provided that the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended during a National Emergency.
11. Provided constitutional protection to publication in newspapers of accurate reports of the proceedings of the Parliament and the State Legislatures.
12. Omitted the provisions that took away the court’s power to decide the election disputes of the President, Vice-president, Prime Minister, and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
|50th Amendment Act, 1984||11 September 1984||Amend Article 33||Provided the power to the Parliament to restrict the Fundamental Rights of persons employed in Intelligence Organisations and telecommunications systems set up for the armed forces or intelligence organisations.|
|52nd Amendment Act, 1984||1 March 1985||Insert 10th Schedule.|
Amend Articles 101, 102, 190, and 191.
|Provided for the disqualification of Members of Parliament and State Legislatures on the ground of deflection from one party to another, thus, include Anti-Defection Law by adding a new Tenth Schedule in the Constitution containing the details in this regard.|
|53rd Amendment Act, 1986||20 February 1987||Insert Article 371G||Special Provision with respect to the State of Mizoram|
|55th Amendment Act, 1986||20 February 1987||Insert Article 371H||Special powers to Governor consequent to the formation of State of Arunachal Pradesh|
|56th Amendment Act, 1987||30 May 1987||Insert Article 371I||Transition provision to enable the formation of the State of Goa|
|58th Amendment Act, 1987||9 December 1987||Insert Article 394A.|
Amend Part XXII.
|Provided for an authoritative text of the Constitution in the Hindi Language and gave the same legal sanctity to the Hindi version of the Constitution|
|60th Amendment Act, 1988||20 December 1988||Amend Article 276.||Raised the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment from ₹250 per annum to a maximum of ₹2500 per annum|
|61st Amendment Act, 1989||28 March 1989||Amend Article 326.||Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly elections|
|65th Amendment Act, 1990||12 March 1992||Amend Article 338.||Provided for the formation of a multi-member National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in place of Special Officers for SCs and STs|
|69th Amendment Act, 1991||1 February 1992||Insert Articles 239AA and 239AB.||This Amendment accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Amendment also laid out the formation of a 70-member Legislative Assembly and a 7-member Council of Ministers for Delhi.|
|70th Amendment Act, 1992||Deemed to have come into force on the 21 December 1991||Amend Articles 54 and 239AA.||Included the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry in the electoral college for the election of the President|
|71st Amendment Act, 1992||31 August 1992||Amend 8th Schedule.||This Amendment included the Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali languages in the Eighth Schedules of the Constitution. With this, the total number of Scheduled Languages increased to 18.|
|73rd Amendment Act, 1992||24 April 1993||Insert Part IX.|
Insert 11th Schedule.
|This Amendment granted constitutional status and protection to the Panchayati Raj Institutions. For this purpose, the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992 added a new Part IX entitled ‘The Panchayats‘ consisting of provisions from Articles 243 to 243-O and added a new Eleventh Schedule.|
The 11th Schedule, dealing with Article 243-G, contains the 29 functional items of the panchayats.
|74th Amendment Act, 1992||1 June 1993||Insert Part IX-A.|
Insert 12th Schedule.
Amend Article 280.
|This Amendment granted constitutional status and protection to the Urban Local Bodies. For this purpose, the 74th Amendment Act of 1992 added a new Part IX-A entitled ‘ The Municipalities’ consisting of provisions from Article 243-P to 243-ZG, with a new Twelfth Schedule.|
The 12th Schedule, dealing with Article 243-W, contains the 18 functional items of the municipalities.
|75th Amendment Act, 1993||15 May 1994||Amend Article 323B.||Provided for setting up of Rent Control Tribunals for the adjudication of disputes with respect to rent, its regulation and control and tenancy issues, including the rights, title and interest of landlords and tenants|
|76th Amendment Act, 1994||31 August 1994||Amend 9th Schedule.||This Amendment facilitated the continuance of 69% reservation of seats in educational institutions and posts in State services in Tamil Nadu by including the Tamil Nadu Reservation Act of 1994 under the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to protect it from judicial review. In 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that the total reservation should not exceed 50%.|
|77th Amendment Act, 1995||17 June 1995||Amend Article 16.||This Amendment provided the reservation in promotions for government jobs for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Amendment nullified the Supreme Court judgement related to the reservation in promotions.|
|80th Amendment Act, 2000||9 June 2000||Amend Articles 269 and 270.|
Remove Article 272.
|This Amendment laid out an “alternative scheme of devolution” of revenue between the Centre and the States. 80th Amendment Act of 2000 was enacted based on the recommendation of the Tenth Finance Commission. The 10th Finance Commission has recommended that out of total income obtained from the Central taxes and duties, 29% should be distributed among the States.|
The 80th Amendment implemented the Tenth Finance Commission’s recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all the taxes between the Centres and States.
|81st Amendment Act, 2000||9 June 2000||Amend Article 16.||This Amendment protects the reservation of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in filling up the backlog of vacancies.|
The Amendment empowered the State to consider the non-filled reserved vacancies of a year as a separate quota of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years and not to be covered under the ceiling of 50% reservation.
In other words, the 81st Amendment Act ended the 50% ceiling on the reservation in backlog vacancies.
|82nd Amendment Act, 2000||8 September 2000||Amend Article 335.||Permit the relaxation in qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes candidates.|
|83rd Amendment Act, 2000||8 September 2000||Amend Article 243M.||Exempted Arunachal Pradesh from the reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj Institutions, as the total population of the State is Scheduled Tribes, and there are no Scheduled Castes|
|84th Amendment Act, 2001||21 February 2002||Amend Articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330, and 332.||1. The Amendment froze the Delimitation Commission up to 31 December 2026. In other words, it extended the ban on the readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies for another 25 years, i.e., up to 2026, with the same objective of encouraging population-limiting measures. The number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies to remain the same until 2026.|
2. The Amendment also laid out the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the States based on the population figures of the 1991 Census.
|85th Amendment Act, 2001||4 January 2002||Amend Article 16.||A technical amendment to provide the “consequential seniority” in case of promotions by virtue of the rule of reservation for the Government servants belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes with retrospective effect from June 1995|
|86th Amendment Act, 2002||12 December 2002||Insert Article 21A.|
Amend Articles 45 and 51A.
|1. Made elementary education a Fundamental Right by adding a new Article 21-A in Part III of the Constitution. Article 21-A laid out that the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6 to 14 years in such manner as the State may determine.|
2. Changed the subject matter of Article 45 in Part IV (Directive Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution. Now, Article 45 laid out that State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years.
3. Included a new Fundamental Duty under Article 51-A, which laid out that it shall be the duty of every Indian citizen who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child between the age of 6 to 14 years.
|87th Amendment Act, 2002||22 June 2003||Amend Articles 81, 82, 170, and 330.||Provided for the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the States based on the population figures of the 2001 Census|
|88th Amendment Act, 2003||15 January 2004||Insert Article 268A.|
Amend 7th Schedule.
Amend Article 270.
|The Amendment made a provision for the service tax under Article 268-A. Taxes on services are levied by the Centre, but their proceeds are collected and appropriated by both the Centre and the State as per the principles formulated by the Parliament.|
|89th Amendment Act, 2003||28 September 2003||Insert Article 338A.|
Amend Article 338.
|89th Amendment Act of 2003 bifurcated the erstwhile combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate bodies, namely,|
National Commission for Scheduled Castes under Article 338, and
National Commission for Scheduled Tribes under a new Article 338-A.
|91st Amendment Act, 2003||1 January 2004||Insert Article 361B.|
Amend 10th Schedule.
Amend Articles 75 and 164.
|The Amendment limits the size of the Council of Ministers. It also made provisions to debar defectors from holding public offices and strengthen the Anti-Defection Law.|
1. It laid out that the total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Union Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha (Article 71).
Similarly, the total number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Legislative Assembly of that State (Article 164).
2. A member of either House of Parliament or the House of State Legislature belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to hold any remunerative political post (Article 361-B).
3. The provision of the Tenth Schedule related to exemption from disqualification in case of a split by one-third of Members of the legislative party has been deleted, which means that the defectors have no more protection on the grounds of splits.
|92nd Amendment Act, 2003||7 January 2004||Amend 8th Schedule.||92nd Amendment Act of 2003 included four more languages: Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Mathili (Maithili), and Santhali, in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. With this, the total number of constitutionally recognized languages increased to 22.|
|93rd Amendment Act, 2005||20 January 2006||Amend Article 15.|
The Amendment was enacted to nullify the Supreme Court judgement in the Inamdar case (2005), in which the court laid out that reservation in private, unaided educational institutions was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court ruled that the State cannot impose its reservation policy on non-minority unaided private colleges, including professional colleges.
|This Amendment empowered the State to make special provisions for the socially and educationally Backward Classes or the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in the education institutions, including the private education institution (either aided or unaided by the State), except the minority education institution, under Article 15(5).|
It enabled the provision of 27% reservation for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in government and private educational institutions.
|94th Amendment Act, 2006||12 June 2006||Amend Article 164.||This Amendment excluded Bihar from the obligation of having a Minister of Tribal Welfare and extended the same provision to Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.|
Therefore, it provided for a Tribal Welfare minister in the newly formed States of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, including Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, under Article 164(1).
|97th Amendment Act, 2011||12 January 2012||Insert Article 43-B.|
Insert Part IX-B.
Amend Article 19.
|The 97th Amendment Act of 2011 provided constitutional status and protection to Co-operative Societies. For this purpose, the Amendment made the following three changes in the Constitution:|
1. It added the word “co-operative societies” in Article 19(1)(c). Hence, the Amendment made the “Right to form Co-operative Societies” a Fundamental Right under Article 19.
2. The Amendment included a new Directive Principle of State Policy, which is “Promotion of Co-operative Societies”, by inserting new Article 43-B.
3. It added a new Part IX-B in the Constitution, entitled ” The Co-operative Societies”, from Article 243-ZH to 243-ZT.
|99th Amendment Act, 2014||Enforced on 13 April 2015.|
Repealed on 16 October 2015.
|Insert new Articles 124A, 124B, and 124C.|
Amend Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231.
|This Amendment replaced the collegium system of appointing the judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts with a new body, known as the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC).|
However, in October 2015, the Supreme Court declared the 99th Amendment Act of 2014 unconstitutional and void. Consequently, the earlier collegium system became operative again.
|100th Amendment Act, 2015||31 July 2015||Amended the First Schedule of the Constitution||This Amendment was enacted to pursue the Land Boundary Agreement of 1974 and its Protocol of 2011 between India and Bangladesh. It gave effect to the acquiring of certain territories by India and the transfer of certain other territories to Bangladesh (through the exchange of enclaves and retention of adverse possessions).|
For this purpose, it amended the provisions related to the territories of four States: Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, and Tripura, in the First Schedule of the Constitution.
|101st Amendment Act, 2016||1 July 2017||Insert Articles 246A, 269A, and 279A.|
Amend 6th and 7th Schedules.
Amend Articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, and 368.
Remove Article 268A.
|Introduced the Goods and Services Tax regime in the country|
|102nd Amendment Act, 2018||11 August 2018||Insert Articles 338B and 342A.|
Amend Articles 338 and 366.
|1. Provided the Constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC).|
2. Relieved the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) from its functions related to the backward classes.
3. Empowered the President to specify the socially and educationally backward classes in relation to a State or Union Territory.
|103rd Amendment Act, 2019||12 January 2019||Amend Article 15 by adding clause  in it.|
Amend Article 16 by adding clause  in it.
|1. Empowered the State to enact any special provision for the advancement of any Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) of citizens.|
2. Enabled the State to enable a provision for reservation of up to 10% of seats for EWSs in admission to the educational institutions, except the minority educational institutions under Article 15(6).
3. Allowed the State to enact a provision for the reservation of up to 10% of appointments or posts in favour of Economically Weaker Sections under Article 16(6).
This reservation of up to 10% would be in addition to the existing reservations.
|104th Amendment Act, 2020||25 January 2020||Amend Article 334.||1. Extend the reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty years.|
2. Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian Community in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
|105th Amendment Act, 2021||10 August 2021||Amend Articles 338B, 342A, and 366.||The Amendment restores the power of the State to identify and specify Socially and Educationally Backward Classes. As per the Act, every State or Union Territory shall prepare and maintain a list of socially and educationally backward classes for its own purposes.|