Good Governance Index – UPSC Notes

Good Governance Index (GGI) is a comprehensive and implementable framework to access the state of Governance across the Indian States and UTs, which allows the ranking of States and Districts. Being a bi-annual exercise, it aims to provide a tool that can be used uniformly across the States to evaluate the impact of various interventions taken up by the Central and State Governments, including UTs. Based on the GGI Framework, the Index provides a comparative picture among the States while developing a competitive spirit for improvement.

Overview of the Good Governance Index 2021

Prepared by:Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG)
The top three States ranked in the Index1. Gujarat
2. Maharashtra
3. Goa

About the Good Governance Index 2021

  • The Government of India launched the Good Governance Index 2021 on the occasion of the Good Governance Day on 25 December 2021.
  • The Index is prepared by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) under the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances, and Pensions.
  • The GGI 2021 Framework covered ten sectors and 58 indicators. The sectors of GGI 2021:
    1. Agriculture and Allied Sectors.
    2. Commerce and Industries.
    3. Human Resource Development.
    4. Public Health.
    5. Public Infrastructure and Utilities.
    6. Economic Governance.
    7. Social Welfare and Development.
    8. Judicial and Public Security.
    9. Environment.
    10. Citizen-Centric Governance.
  • The GGI 2021 has categorized the States and UTs into four categories:
    1. Other States – Group A.
    2. Other States – Group B.
    3. North-East and Hill States.
    4. Union Territories.

Key Highlights of Good Governance Index 2021

In the GGI 2021, 20 States have improved their composite GGI scores.

Ranking of the States and UTs into four categories

  1. Other States – Group A
    • Gujarat tops the composite rank score covering ten sectors, followed by Maharashtra and Goa.
  2. Other States – Group B
    • Madhya Pradesh tops in this category in the GGI 2021, followed by Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh.
  3. North-East and Hill States
    • Himachal Pradesh tops in the North-East and Hill States category, followed by Mizoram and Uttarakhand.
  4. Union Territories
    • In the Union Territories category, Delhi tops the composite ranking in the GGI 2021, registering a 14% increase over the GGI 2019 indicators.

Performance of top States and UTs

Other States – Group A

In GGI 2021, Gujarat has registered a 12.3% increase over the GGI 2019 indicators and performed strongly in 5 out of the ten sectors, including Economic governance, Human Resource Development, Public infrastructure & utilities, Social Welfare & Development, Judiciary & public safety.

Goa has registered a 24.7% increase in GGI 2021 over the GGI 2019 indicators and performed strongly in Agriculture & Allied sector, Commerce & Industry, Public Infrastructure & utilizes, Economic governance, Social Welfare & Development, and Environment sectors.

Maharashtra has performed strongly in Agriculture & Allied sector, Human Resource Development, Public Infrastructure & Utilities, Social Welfare and Development.

Other States – Group B

As per GGI 2021, Uttar Pradesh has shown an incremental growth of 8.9% over the GGI 2019 indicators. Among the sectors, Uttar Pradesh has secured top position in Commerce & industry sector. UP also improved in Social Welfare & Development and performed in citizen-centric governance, including public grievance redressal.

Jharkhand has registered a 12.6% incremental growth over GGI 2019 performance and performed strongly in seven sectors.

Rajasthan has shown an incremental growth of 1.7% over the GGI 2019 indicators and topped in the Judiciary and public safety, Citizen-Centric Governance, and Environment sector in the Other States – Group B category.

North-East and Hill States

Mizoram has shown an overall increase of 10.4% over the GGI 2019 and performed strongly in Commerce & Industry, Human Resource Development, Public Health, and Economic Governance sectors.

Jammu and Kashmir have recorded an overall increase of 3.7% over the GGI 2019 indicators and performed strongly in Commerce & Industry sector. Jammu &Kashmir has also improved its score in Agriculture & Allied Sector, Public Infrastructure & Utilities, and Judiciary & Public Safety sectors.

Union Territories

Delhi has recorded an incremental growth of 14% over the GGI 2019 indicators and strongly performed in Agriculture & Allied sectors, Commerce & Industry, Public Infrastructure & Utilities, and Judiciary & Public Safety sectors.

Top rankings States (Sector-wise) in the GGI 2021

Sr. noSectorsGroup AGroup BNorth-East & Hill StatesUnion Territories
1.Agriculture and Allied SectorAndhra PradeshMadhya PradeshMizoramDadra & Nagar Haveli
2.Commerce and IndustryTelanganaUttar PradeshJ & KDaman & Diu
3.Human Resource DevelopmentPunjabOdishaHimachal PradeshChandigarh
4.Public HealthKeralaWest BengalMizoramAndaman & Nicobar Islands
5.Public Infrastructure and UtilitiesGoaBiharHimachal PradeshAndaman & Nicobar Islands
6.Economic GovernanceGujaratOdishaTripuraDelhi
7.Social Welfare and DevelopmentTelanganaChhattisgarhSikkimDadra & Nagar Haveli
8.Judicial and Public SafetyTamil NaduRajasthanNagalandChandigarh
9.EnvironmentKeralaRajasthanManipurDaman & Diu
10.Citizen-Centric GovernanceHaryanaRajasthanUttarakhandDelhi
Composite RanksGujaratMadhya PradeshHimachal PradeshDelhi

Sectors and Indicators of the Good Governance Index 2020-21

Sr. noSectorsIndicators
1.Agriculture and Allied Sector1. Growth of Agriculture and Allied Sector
2. Growth of Food Grains Production
3. Growth of Horticulture Produce
4. Growth of Milk Production
5. Growth of Meat Production
6. Growth of Egg/Poultry production
7. Crop Insurance
8. Agri. Mandis Enrolled in e-Market
2.Commerce and Industry1. Ease-of-Doing Business (EoDB)
2. Growth of Industries
3. Change in number of MSME Units registered under Online Udyog Aadhar Registration
4. Increase in number of Establishments registered under GST
5. Start-up Environment
3.Human Resource Development1. Quality of Education
2. Retention Rate of Elementary School Level
3. Gender Parity
4. Enrolment Ratio of SC & ST
5. Schools with Access to Computers for Pedagogical Purposes/Working Computers
6. Skill Training Imparted
7. Placement Ratio including Self-employment
4.Public Health1. Operationalisation of Health and Wellness Centres
2. Availability of Doctors at PHCs
3. Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
4. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
5. Immunisation Achievement
6. Number of Hospital Beds per 1000 population
5.Public Infrastructure and Utilities1. Access to Potable Water
2. Connectivity to Rural Habitation
3. Increase in Access to Clean Cooking Fuel (LPG)
4. Energy Availability against the requirement
5. Growth of Per Capita Power Consumption
6. Wards (Urban) covered by D-t-D waste collection
6.Economic Governance1. Growth in Per capita GSDP
2. Fiscal Deficit as a percentage of GSDP
3. State’s own Tax Revenue Receipts to Total Revenue Receipts
4. Debt (Total Outstanding Liabilities) to GSDP
7.Social Welfare and Development1. Sex Ratio at Birth
2. Health Insurance Coverage
3. Rural Employment Guarantee
4. Unemployment Rate
5. Housing for All
6. Economic Empowerment of Women
7. Empowerment of SCs, STs, OBCs and Minorities
8. Disposal of SC/ST Atrocity cases by Courts
9. Banking outlets per 100,000 population
10. Aadhaar seeded Ration Cards
8.Judicial and Public Safety1. Conviction Rate
2. Availability of Police Personnel
3. Proportion of Women Police Personnel
4. Disposal of Court Cases
5. Disposal of Cases by Consumer Courts
9.Environment1. Change in Forest Cover
2. Proportion of Waste Recycle v/s Waste Generated
3. Percentage of Degraded Land
4. Growth in installed capacity of Grid-Interactive Renewable Power
10.Citizen-Centric Governance1. Enactment of Right to Service Act by the States
2. Grievance Redressal Status
3. Government Services Provided Online to Citizens

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