Indian National Congress (INC) was formed on 28 December 1885 by A. O. Hume, along with Dadabhai Naoraji and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee presided over the first session of INC, attended by 72 delegates from all over the country. The first session started on 28 December and continued till 31 December 1885. Hume assumed the office of the General Secretary. Hereafter, Congress decided to meet every year in December in a different part of the country.
Important Facts about Indian National Congress
- A. O. Hume played an important role in the formation of the Indian National Congress. He is known as the father of the Indian National Congress.
- Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy of India when INC was formed.
- Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the president of the first session of the Indian National Congress held in 1885.
- Dadhabhai Naoroji was the first Parsi President of the Indian National Congress. He also presided over the second session of the Indian National Congress held in Calcutta in 1886. He became the Congress President three times.
- Badruddin Tyabji was the first Muslim President of the Indian National Congress, presided over the third INC session held in 1887 in Madras.
- George Yule was the first European president of the Indian National Congress, who presided over the fourth INC session held in 1888 in Allahabad.
- Kadambini Ganguly was the first woman graduate of Calcutta University who addressed the Congress session in 1890 held in Calcutta.
- Rahimtulla M. Sayani was the second Muslim President of the Indian National Congress, who served as president of the INC session held in 1896 in Calcutta.
- Annie Beasant was the first female president of the Indian National Congress presided over the INC session of 1917 held in Calcutta.
- Sarojini Naidu was the first Indian woman president of the Indian National Congress, presided over the INC session of 1925 held in Kanpur.
- Maulana Abul Kalam Azad became the Youngest person to serve as the President of INC at the age of 35 in 1923.
- Hakim Ajmal Khan was the only person to be appointed as the President of INC, All India Muslim League, and All India Khilafat Committee.
- Acharya J. B. Kripalani presided over the last INC session before the Indian Independence, held in Meerut in 1946.
Important Sessions of INC
|1885||Bombay||W. C. Bonnerjee|| |
1) To promote personal intimacy and communication among Indians.
2) To eradicate all primordial loyalties based on religion, caste, race, sex, language.
3) To educate the public opinion & media in India and Britain regarding the political, social, and economic aspirations of Indians.
4) To decide the methodology of struggle against the colonial and imperialist design of government.
|1889||Bombay||Sir William Wedderburn|
|1890||Calcutta||Pheroz Shah Mehta||Kadambini Ganguli was the first woman graduate of Calcutta University to address the INC session.|
|1891||Nagpur||P. Ananda Charlu|
|1892||Allahabad||W. C. Bonnerjee|
|1896||Calcutta||Rahimtulla M. Sayani||The National song ‘Vande Mataram’ was sung for the first time by Rabindranath Tagore.|
|1897||Amravati||C. Sankaran Nair|
|1898||Madras||Ananda Mohan Bose|
|1899||Lucknow||Romesh Chandra Dutt||Demand for permanent fixation of land revenue.|
|1900||Lahore||N. G. Chandavarkar|
|1901||Calcutta||Dinshaw E. Wacha|
|1903||Madras||Lal Mohan Ghosh|
|1904||Bombay||Sir Henry Cotton.|
|1905||Benaras||Gopal Krishna Gokhale||Resentment was shown against the Partition of Bengal.|
Formal Proclamation of the Swadeshi movement against the government.
2) Resolution on Swadeshi.
3) Resolution on Boycott.
4) Resolution on National Education.
|1907||Surat||Rash Behari Ghosh||The ‘Surat Split’- the Congress splits into the Moderates and the Extremists.|
Adjournment of Session.
|1908||Madras||Rash Behari Ghosh||The previous session continued.|
The Constitution of the INC was drawn.
|1909||Lahore||Madan Mohan Malaviya||Indian Councils Act, 1909.|
INC expressed disapproval over the formation of separate electorates based on religion as given in the Indian Councils Act, 1909.
|1910||Allahabad||Sir William Wedderburn|
|1911||Calcutta||Bishan Narayan Dar||The National Anthem ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was sung for the first time. Sarala Devi Chaudhurani intoned the song with a few school students.|
|1912||Bankipur (Patna)||Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar|
|1914||Madras||Bhupendra Nath Basu|
|1915||Bombay||S. P. Sinha||The Constitution of the INC altered to admit the delegates from the extremist section.|
|1916||Lucknow||A. C. Majumdar|
|1917||Calcutta||Annie Besant||Annie Besant was the first woman President of INC.|
|1918||Bombay (special session held in August 1918)||Syed Hasan Imam|
|1918||Delhi||Modan Mohan Malviya||The second split in Congress on the issue of Montague’s declaration. |
The moderates, led by Surendranath Banerjee, supported the Montague declaration in November 1918.
|1920||Calcutta (special session in September 1920)||Lala Lajpat Rai||Mahatma Gandhi moved the Non-Cooperation Resolution.|
|1921||Ahmedabad||Hakim Ajmal Khan (acting president for C. R. Das)|
|1922||Gaya||C. R. Das|
|1923||Kakinada||Maulana Abul Kalam Azad||Maulana Azad was the youngest Congress President.|
|1924||Belgaum||M. K. Gandhi||Only INC session presided over by Mahatma Gandhi.|
|1925||Kanpur||Sarojini Naidu||Sarojini Naidu was the first Indian Woman President of INC.|
|1926||Gauhati||S. Srinivasa Iyengar|
|1927||Madras||M. A. Ansari|
|1928||Calcutta||Motilal Nehru||The first All India Youth Congress was formed.|
|1932||Delhi||Amrit Ranchhorddas Seth|
|1934||Bombay||Rajendra Prasad||INC first time demanded the separate Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India.|
|1936||Lucknow||Jawaharlal Nehru||The president urged Congress to adopt socialism as its goal.|
|1938||Haripura||Subhas Chandra Bose||National Planning Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru.|
|1939||Tripura||Subhas Chandra Bose||S. C. Bose was re-elected as President but had to resign since Gandhi Ji supported Pattabhi Sitaramayya.|
Rajendra Prasad took over as president after S. C. Bose resigned.
Subhas Chandra Bose formed the Forward Bloc party.
|1940||Ramgarh||Maulana Abul Kalam Azad|
|1946||Meerut||Acharya J. B. Kripalani||Last session of INC before Independence.|
|1948||Jaipur||Pattabhi Sitaramanyya||First INC session after Independence.|
|1950||Nasik||Purushottam Das Tondon||Purushottam Das Tandon resigned in September 1951, after which Jawaharlal Nehru became the President.|
The INC Sessions for the years 1930, 1935, and 1941-45 could not be held.